Monday, February 20, 2017

Passive Oppression in Education: Fueling the Achievement Gap

Many students in districts across the nation are faced with issues of poverty, racism, and oppression in their communities and schools.  Educators and administrators are uncertain about how to meet the needs of  students, especially students of color, living in poverty. The fact is that too many educators, for a variety of reasons, have simply surrendered to the forces of poverty and racism. In the process they have also surrendered our children’s future (Yes We Can, 2005).  This sad submission contributes to the academic achievement gap for our Hispanic, American Indian, and Black youth. According to the 2013 results of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP):
The test scores indicate that Black, Hispanic, and American Indian students in the fourth and eighth grades scored significantly lower than their White peers in reading and math. Moreover, Black, Hispanic, and American Indian students demonstrate proficiency in reading and math at much lower levels than White students and perform below basic in these subject areas at much higher rates than White students. 
The issue of surrendering to the forces of poverty and racism is referred to by Allen G. Johnson (2009) as passive oppression in our educational system. Passive oppression fuels the achievement gap for our poorest and neediest students. It contributes to a culture of power and privilege for certain school communities, leaving our underserved students of color and their communities behind. 

Privilege and a System of Oppression
Johnson speaks of passive oppression as a form of racism and privilege, and defines it as "making it possible for oppression to happen simply by doing nothing to stop it” (Johnson 2009, p. 106).  I have witnessed this issue of privilege and power in my communities, and believe it greatly impacts schools across the nation. After discussing these issues with many of my colleagues, I have come to believe that the lack of action and indifference on the part of many educators is indeed a result of passive oppression.  The majority of school administrators and teachers care about students and seem to be overwhelmed with the task of meeting a variety of social, emotional, and educational needs.  Many lack the skills, resources, and even the will to deal with many of those unique needs.  The problem is in their failure to understand that this power of silence, “promotes privilege and oppression” and that racism and other forms of privilege depend on this type of day-to-day, real world oppression (Johnson 2009, p. 105).  The key is to help educators begin to see themselves as enablers of an oppressive system every time they choose to explicitly ignore dealing with the problems that lead to the achievement gaps faced by students of color and students living in poverty.  We can begin to change this system of inequity and oppression by acknowledging it's existence and our role in the system.

Serving All Students
            Our underserved students of color living in poverty continue to fall behind their peers in school districts across the nation. Educators and educational leaders must embrace this reality and make themselves accountable for the learning and academic success of all learners.  This begins by acknowledging the privilege, power, and racism that exist in our educational system. Passive oppression in our schools is a form of racism and privilege that must be overcome.  If we continue to remain silent about these issues, we are communicating to our students and communities living in poverty that they are not worth serving. 

“Although reforming public schools will not eliminate poverty or racial discrimination, education continues to be the only legitimate source of opportunity available to the poor."- Pedro Noguera

Johnson, A. (2006). Privilege, power, and difference. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Noguera, P. (2008). The trouble with black boys: Race, equity, and the future of  education. San Francisco: Wiley & Sons.
The Education Trust. (2006, September). Yes we can: Telling truths and dispelling myths about race and education in America. Retrieved from: http://www.edtrust.org/dc/publication/yes-we-can-telling-truths-and-dispelling myths-about-race-and-education-in-America